Solar panels: how it works
04 january 2017, 04:49
Solar panels now used to power diverse equipment from mobile gadgets to electric cars. How what are and what modern solar panels you will learn from this article.
So historically that solar panels this is the second attempt of mankind to harness the limitless energy of the Sun and make it work to your benefit. First there were solar collectors solar thermal power plant where the electricity is generated is heated to the boiling temperature under concentrated sunlight, the water.
The same solar battery produced electricity that is much more effective. In case of direct transformation loses much less energy than multistage as the collectors focus the sun's rays heating the water and allocation of steam rotation of the steam turbine and only at the end of generation of electricity by the generator.
Modern solar battery consists of a chain of photovoltaic cells semiconductor devices convert solar energy directly into electric current. The process of converting solar energy into electric current is known as the photoelectric effect.
This phenomenon discovered by French physicist Alexander Edmond Becquerel in the mid-nineteenth century. First, the current solar cell half a century later created the Russian scientist Alexander Stoletov. And in the twentieth century photoelectric effect quantitatively described does not require albert Einstein.
A semiconductor is a material in which atoms either have extra electrons n-type or Vice versa is not enough p-type. Accordingly, a semiconductor solar cell consists of two layers with different conductivity. As cathode used the n-layer and as the anode p-layer.
The extra electrons from the n-layer can leave their atoms whereas the p-layer these electrons captures. It is the light rays knock out electrons from atoms of the n-layer then they are flying in the p-layer to take the vacant places. In this way, the electrons run in a circle leaving the p-layer, passing through the load, in this case, the battery and returning to the n-layer.
The first ever photovoltaic material has been selenium. It has produced cells in the late XIX and early XX centuries. But given the extremely low efficiency of less than 1 percent selenium immediately began to look for a replacement.
The mass production of solar cells was made possible after the telecommunications company Bell Telephone has developed a solar cell based on silicon. He still remains the most common material in the production of solar panels. However the cleaning of the silicon process is extremely costly and therefore little by little tried alternative compounds of copper indium gallium and cadmium.
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